Thanks! Basic principles of growth and development are: • The process starts at fertilization and continues until death. The time between feedings lengthens as infants grow and develop. Development relates to changes in mental, emotional, and social function. (Neo means new; natal and nate mean born.) Adults can meet most of their basic needs without help. Fruits, vegetables, and meats are introduced slowly. When on their stomachs, they can turn their heads from side to side. The ten year old, on the other hand, should be provided with basic and honest information before the procedure and perhaps simple options of which arm should be used and if he or she wishes to hold a parent’s hand. 11-9). The legs extend and then flex. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Rehabilitation and Restorative Nursing Care, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nursing care of children: principles and practices. email@example.com, Facebook They can hold a bottle, play “pat-a-cake,” and drink from a cup or glass. Also, the rate of growth and development varies with each person. Newborns can see from about 8 to 12 inches and can follow large objects. Begin to talk and communicate with others. They can taste and smell. Infants 3 to 4 months of age can hold their heads up (Fig. At 8 months, infants can sit for long periods. Growth is the physical changes that are measured and that occur in a steady and orderly manner. "Looking for a Similar Assignment? They drink from a cup with handles. NCLEX Exam Duration: How Long is the Test? Growth And Development Throughout your nursing training and career, you will care for patients and family members of all ages. Crawling may start at 7 months. • Beginning to talk and communicate with others, • Beginning to have emotional relationships with parents, brothers, and sisters, • Developing stable sleep and feeding patterns, • Tolerating separation from the primary caregiver, • Gaining control of bowel and bladder function, • Becoming less dependent on the primary caregiver, • Increasing the ability to communicate and understand others, • Learning gender differences and developing sexual modesty, • Learning right from wrong and good from bad, • Developing the social and physical skills needed for playing games, • Learning to get along with persons of the same age-group and background (peers), • Learning gender-appropriate behaviors and attitudes, • Learning basic reading, writing, and math skills, • Developing a good feeling and attitude about oneself, • Becoming independent of adults and learning to depend on oneself, • Developing and keeping friendships with peers, • Understanding physical, psychological, and social changes, • Developing greater muscular strength, coordination, and balance, • Accepting changes in the body and appearance, • Developing appropriate relationships with others and beginning to attract partners, • Becoming independent from parents and adults, • Developing morals, attitudes, and values needed to function in society, • Adjusting to decreased strength and loss of health, • Adjusting to retirement and reduced income, • Developing new friends and relationships. They sleep all night. Identify the developmental tasks for each age-group. The process occurs in a sequence, order, and pattern. They sit with support and move around by rolling. Nursing: Importance of learning growth and development of Child The childcare depends on the understanding of parents, about the growth and development of the child. Growth and development stages vary among experts. They also can sit by leaning forward on their hands (Fig. The primary caregiver is the person mainly responsible for providing or assisting with the child’s basic needs. Dark-skinned babies have brown eyes. See Figure 11-3. Breast-fed infants are hungry more often—every 2 to 3 hours. 11-1). • Moro reflex (startle reflex)—occurs when the baby is startled by a loud noise, a sudden movement, or the head falling back. A 2-month-old smiles in response to others. They react to touch and pain. (Courtesy Paul Vincent Kuntz, Texas Children’s Hospital, as found in Hockenberry MJ, Wilson D: Wong’s nursing care of infants and children, (Courtesy Anne Skowronski, Mount Juliet, Tennessee.). • The process occurs in a sequence, order, and pattern. In this chapter, primary caregiver is used in place of mother, father, or parent. Order now and Get 10% Discount! Throughout your nursing training and career, you will care for patients and family members of all ages. At 1 year, the chest is larger than the head.